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Gujranwala

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Gujranwala
گوجرانوالہ
—  City district  —
Nickname(s): The City of Wrestlers
The City of Foods
Gujranwala is located in Pakistan
Gujranwala
Coordinates: 32°9′N 74°11′E / 32.15°N 74.183°E / 32.15; 74.183
Country  Pakistan
Region Punjab
District Gujranwala District
Autonomous towns 7
Union councils 19
Government
 - Private Hasnain Akram
Area
 - Total 3,198 km2 (1,234.8 sq mi)
Population (2010)[1]
 - Total 2,569,090
Time zone PST (UTC+5)
 - Summer (DST) PDT (UTC+6)
Area code(s) 055

Gujranwala (Punjabi, Urdu: گوجرانوالہ) is a city in the northeast of the Punjab province. It is the seventh largest city in Pakistan with a population of 1,569,090 (2010 estimate).[1] Gujranwala is located at 32.16° North, 74.18° East and is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level.[2] It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi and some small towns and villages. Punjabi is the local language, but English and Urdu are also common, particularly in schools and offices.

Due to extensive road and rail links the city has flourished within the manufacturing and agricultural markets. The city is on the Grand Trunk Road, which allows logistical connections to the provincial capitals such as Peshawar and Lahore. Gujranwala is known for its extensive production of sugarcanes, melons and grains for international export. The city also has set up several commercial and industrial centres allowing the manufacturing of ceramics,steel, cutlery, crockery, iron safes, metal tool, utensils, textiles, sanitary and tannery production. The city has produced some of the finest wrestlers and bodybuilders of the subcontinent, which has resulted in the nickname 'City of Wrestlers' or Phelwana da shehar in Punjabi.

Contents

History

Human settlements in Gujranwala have been present since antiquity. According to the Imperial Gazetteer of India the town was originally founded by Gujjars, and renamed Khanpur by the Sansi Jats of Amritsar who settled there; but its old name has survived.[3] Many historians also states that place was named after Gujjars,[4] while they formerly ruled the Gurjara Pratihara Empire for centuries.[5]

Map of Gujranwala City

In 630 the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, Hsuan Tsang visited a major town known as Tse-kia (or Taki) which was in the vicinity of modern Gujranwala. A mound near the modern village of Asarur has been identified as the site of the ancient city. Until the arrival of the Muslims little is known of Gujranwala, except that Taki had fallen into oblivion and Lahore had become the chief city. Under Muslim rule the district flourished for a time; but a mysterious depopulation took place and the whole region seems to have been almost entirely abandoned. The district gazetteer dates the name of Gujranwala to approximately the middle of the 16th century.

The Sikhs dominated the Punjab after the death of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb Alamgir in 1707. The town became important during the rule of the father and grandfather of Ranjit Singh.[3] Maharaja Ranjit Singh who himself was born here became the most powerful of all the Sikh rulers. It was Hari Singh Nalwa, the great military commander of the Sikh Kingdom, who was credited with having built the 'new' city of Gujranwala.[6]

The area was conquered and annexed by the British Empire in 1849. A railway line was built alongside the Grand Trunk Road in 1881 to connect Gujranwala with other cities of the Punjab and made commercial trade between cities more convenient. The municipality of Gujranwala was created in 1867. The North-Western Railway connected Gujranwala with other cities of British India to the far ends of the Empire such as Calcutta as well as Karachi.[3] The population according to the 1901 census of India was 29,224. In 1903-4 the income and expenditure were Rs. 83,100 and Rs. 67,900 respectively. The chief source of income was octroi Rs. 59,700.[3]

After the creation of Pakistan in 1947, Gujranwala developed rapidly and is now a leading city of Pakistan. Gujranwala, as a district was run by a Deputy Commissioner until it became a Division. In 1951 the city was converted into the capital of the district which gave rise to new industries in the city. Many prominent civil servants worked as its Deputy Commissioners; renowned among them is Mansur Zaimur Rehman (M. Z. Rehman), who worked as the DC from 1959 to 1962. He initiated many development projects including the cantonment. He is known for his hard work, integrity and honesty. In 1991, the city hosted its first Test match at the Jinnah Stadium as well as several One Day International matches. Since then the city has continued to thrive with improved economic growth and stabilisation.

Geography and climate

Gujranwala
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
18
 
19
8
 
 
35
 
22
11
 
 
24
 
27
16
 
 
13
 
33
20
 
 
17
 
39
25
 
 
48
 
39
28
 
 
82
 
35
27
 
 
87
 
35
27
 
 
43
 
34
25
 
 
9
 
32
20
 
 
11
 
27
14
 
 
12
 
21
9
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: My Weather2[7]

Gujranwala is located at 32.16° North, 74.18° East and is 226 metres (744 ft) above sea level. It shares borders with Ghakhar Mandi and various small towns and villages. To its south lies the provincial capital of Lahore, which is roughly 80 km away. Sialkot and Gujrat lie to its north along the Grand Trunk Road, which leads to Mirpur in Azad Kashmir. To the southwest lies Faisalabad, roughly 160 km from the city.

The climate of Gujranwala changes quite drastically through the year. The summer periods last from June through to September where the temperature reaches 36-42 degrees Celsius. The coldest months are usually November to February. The temperature can drop to seven degrees Celsius on average. The highest precipitation months are usually July and August when the monsoon season hits the Punjab province. During the other months the average rainfall is roughly 25mm. The driest months are usually November through to April, when little rainfall is seen.[8]

Climate data for Gujranwala
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
22.0
(71.6)
27.0
(80.6)
33.0
(91.4)
39.0
(102.2)
39.0
(102.2)
35.0
(95)
35.0
(95)
34.0
(93.2)
32.0
(89.6)
27.0
(80.6)
21.0
(69.8)
30.8
(87.4)
Average low °C (°F) 6.0
(42.8)
11.0
(51.8)
16.0
(60.8)
20.0
(68)
25.0
(77)
28.0
(82.4)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
25.0
(77)
20.0
(68)
14.0
(57.2)
9.0
(48.2)
17.8
(64)
Precipitation mm (inches) 18.0
(0.709)
35.0
(1.378)
24.0
(0.945)
13.0
(0.512)
17.0
(0.669)
48.0
(1.89)
82.0
(3.228)
87.0
(3.425)
43.0
(1.693)
9.0
(0.354)
11.0
(0.433)
12.0
(0.472)
628.8
(24.756)
Sunshine hours 220.1 217.5 244.9 276 306.9 270 226.3 235.6 267 291.4 261 223.2 3,039.9
Source: My Weather2[9]

Government

In 2008, after the public elections, the new democratic government decided to restore the divisions of all provinces. Therefore Gujranwala Division was formed, with Gujranwala as the division capital.

Since the introduction of the local government system in 2001 the city has been governed by a Nazim (Mayor). In 2007, Gujranwala was reorganised as a City-District composed of seven autonomous towns:

  1. Wazirabad Town
  2. Kamoki Town
  3. Noshehra Virkan Town
  4. Qilah Dedar Singh Town
  5. Khiali Shah Pur Town
  6. Aroop Town
  7. Nandi Pur Town

Economy

Gujranwala Business Centre

Gujranwala is the commercial and industrial nerve center in Pakistan. It is playing a major role to support the Pakistan economy. It is a large industrial city with numerous textile mills, cutlery industry and large agricultural processing plants. Gujranwala's major exports are rice, textiles, carpets, transformers, clothing, glass products, electric fans, surgical equipment, hosiery, leather products, "metal utensils", plastic goods, washing machines, rice husking plants, agricultural implements, automotive machinery & parts, motorcycles, food products, domestic & industrial motors, garments, and sanitary products. Its industries have developed and introduced various products at the national & international level. It has provided employment to over half a million people. The rural areas around Gujranwala produce a large variety of agricultural goods, the main crops grown here are wheat, rice, potato, barley and millet.

The Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce and Industry (GCCI) Chamber Of Commerce And Industry is Established. Because of its ideal location on economic lifeline of G.T. Road in Punjab, Gujranwala city has long been a centre of trade and industry. The city was famous for its metal utensils manufacturing industry even under British rule before independence. Rapid growth was however, seen after independence in 1947. The number of industrial units enhanced from 40 in 1947 to 6,357 in 2006 during span of more than half a century of independence.

Away from the international border with erstwhile hostile India, the city attracted artisans and investors from all sides and today it has two small industrial estates while a third estate and export processing zone (EPZ) projects are in the pipeline. Both planned and unplanned settlements are emerging.

Gujranwala ranks as the third largest industrial centre in the country after Karachi and Faisalabad. The nature of industry here is varied and vast with major part of light engineering industry besides textile, leather, electrical engineering, ceramics, cutlery and many others. The Gujranwala Chamber of Commerce & Industry (GCCI) is a representative body of traders. The major development is that the manufacturers of quality products have devolved on exports, so much so that foreign exchange of 285 million dollars was earned for the country during the year 2004-05. Apart from export, the industry has lowered the import bill to around 600 million dollars by producing items locally that were previously imported from other countries.

Gujranwala's industrial areas have numerous textile mills, cutlery manufacturing plants and large agricultural processing plants, Other industries include ceramics, electronic equipment and an auto industry. The major industrial companies in Gujranwala include Master Industries, Super Asia Industry, Mughal Steels (Pvt) Ltd.

Major exports include rice, sugar, textiles, electrical equipment, carpets, glass goods, medical equipment, leather products, metal utensils, agricultural equipment, automotive machinery parts, and machinery for military uses. The main source of energy is a hydro-electric project on the Chenab River. The city also has a dry port that has contributed to the export growth of the city.

Culture

Nishan-e-manzil

Gujranwala is a historical and cultural centre in the northeast region of the Punjab province, offering a number of sights and activities. The city hosts bodybuilding tournaments, Kabaddi matches, and weightlifting competitions. Food is another thing Gujranwala is known for. The city has developed a very distinct kind of barbecue foods.

Gujranwala has a lot of tourist attractions and places of interest. There are many modern shopping malls where the visitors can enjoy shopping in controlled environment and can buy local and international brands. There is an Officers' Club which has a swimming pool and squash complex, with the scenic natural beauty of Gujranwala Golf and Country Club. There are modern, innovative landmarks like Jinnah Stadium, Pace Shopping Centre and Nishan-e-Manzil. The variety of parks like Jinnah Park, Gulshan Park and Liaqat Park and recreational places ensure that the city offers something for everyone.

Education

University of the Punjab (Gujranwala Campus)

University of the Punjab at Gujranwala is the University of the Punjab's first teaching campus outside Lahore. There are currently 4 departments in the university: Business Administration, Commerce, Law and Information Technology.

GIFT University was established in 2002 by the Government of Punjab (Pakistan), and its degrees are recognized by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, which also offer courses such as BBA, MBA, Computer Science, MBA, MSc Accounting & Finance, Textile and Design, and M.A. English.

Rachna Engineering University was established in 2003. Situated at the hub of the Engineering industries of the country

Gujranwala Medical College (GMC) has started its first session in Nov 2010 and has 100 seats for students in medical education. DHQ hospital has been attached to this college.

Quaid-e-Azam Divisional Public College is the biggest institution in the District, it has its own cricket Ground. Swedish Group of Technical Institutes, Punjab is the largest technical training institute in Pakistan. SOFT Solutions College is one of the best college in Gujranwala along with, Punjab College of Commerce & Information Technology & Islamia College

Notable schools include St. Joseph's English High School, Beaconhouse School System, Army Public School & College, Unique Group Of Schools & Future Vision School

Transport

Gujranwala Railway Station

Gujranwala is an extremely accessible city, benefiting from excellent road and rail links built during the reign of the British that have allowed the city to grow and prosper. By road, the city is less than two hours away from Lahore and three hours drive from Islamabad. The city has a dry port for the export of local products to the rest of the world. The Grand Trunk Road and the motorways have helped the logistical movement of cargo as well as communiting from one city to the next.

There are also rail links with major cities in Pakistan including Karachi, Lahore, Islamabad, Peshawar, Faisalabad as well as smaller cities within the country. The Gujranwala Railway Station was built by the British before the Independence of Pakistan & was one of the largest railway stations of the Asia. It is situated on the Grand Trunk Road at the centre of the city.

Sammi Daewoo A korean co. has also started its Transport serves from Gujranwala to many major cities of the Pakistan since 2006 and provides luxury Transportation for people of Gujranwala.

The city is served by two international airports at Lahore and Sialkot which offer flights domestically as well as internationally. Allama Iqbal International Airport (80 km from the city) and Sialkot International Airport (40 km from the city) are the prime airports that provide flights to Gujranwala.

Food and beverage

Gujranwala is famous for its exotic cuisine. There are a number of restaurants in Gujranwala offering a vast variety of food. Popular local dishes, continental, Chinese, and fast food are offered at a wide variety of eating places. People from other cities and far off places visit Gujranwala to enjoy popular traditional food like Tikkas, Chanps, and Kababs.

Media

Star Times International Urdu Magazine.

Gujranwala TV (GTV) is the city's first community-based TV channel, Established in 1999.

Radio Awaaz Gujranwala has a Radio station, at FM 106 .

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Pakistan: largest cities and towns and statistics of their population. World Gazetteer. Retrieved 11 December 2010.
  2. ^ Location of Gujranwala - Falling Rain Genomics
  3. ^ a b c d Gujrānwāla Town - Imperial Gazetteer of India, v. 12, p. 363.
  4. ^ Ramesh Chandra Majumdar; Bhāratīya Itihāsa Samiti (1954). The History and Culture of the Indian People: The classical age. G. Allen & Unwin. p. 64. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=8QhuAAAAMAAJ&q=gujar+khan+#search_anchor. "." 
  5. ^ P.K. Mohanty (2006). Encyclopaedia Scheduled Tribes In India 5 Vol. Set. Gyan Publishing House. p. 184 to 185. ISBN 9788182050525. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=DfZBc1Gy9g4C&pg=PA185&. "Gujjars belonged to the Kshatria and Brahmin castes, while they formerly ruled the Gujara-Prathihara Empire....during the 6th and 12th Centuries." 
  6. ^ Nalwa, V. (2009) Hari Singh Nalwa-Champion of the Khalsaji, New Delhi: Manohar, p. 240.
  7. ^ {{cite web | url = http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Pakistan/Gujranwala/climate-profile.aspx | title = Gujranwala Climate Profile | accessdate = 2010-05-06 | publisher = [[My Weather2] }}
  8. ^ Jinnah Stadium, Gujranwala - Monthly Averages
  9. ^ {{cite web | url = http://www.myweather2.com/City-Town/Pakistan/Gujranwala/climate-profile.aspx | title = Gujranwala Climate Profile | accessdate = 2010-05-06 | publisher = [[My Weather2] }}

External links

Coordinates: 32°9′0″N 74°11′0″E / 32.15°N 74.183333°E / 32.15; 74.183333

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