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Bangalore

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Beńgaḷūru (ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು)

Bangalore

—  metropolitan city  —
Beńgaḷūru (ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು)
Location of Beńgaḷūru (ಬೆಂಗಳೂರು)
in Karnataka and India
Coordinates 12°58′0″N 77°34′0″E / 12.966667°N 77.566667°E / 12.966667; 77.566667Coordinates: 12°58′0″N 77°34′0″E / 12.966667°N 77.566667°E / 12.966667; 77.566667
Country  India
Region Bayaluseeme
State Karnataka
District(s) Bengaluru Urban
Mayor S. K. Nataraj[1]
Commissioner Siddaiah, IAS[2]
Population

Density
Metro



Spoken languages
Ethnic groups 
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area

Elevation


Website

Bangalore [ˈbæŋɡəlɔːr]), is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka. Bangalore is nicknamed the Garden City and was once called a pensioner's paradise.[5] Located on the Deccan Plateau in the south-eastern part of Karnataka, Bangalore is India's third most populous city[6] and fifth-most populous urban agglomeration. As of 2009, Bangalore was inducted in the list of Global cities and ranked as a "Beta World City" alongside Geneva, Copenhagen, Boston, Cairo, Riyadh, Berlin, to name a few, in the studies performed by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network in 2008.[7]

Though historical references to the city predate 900 AD, a modern written history of continuous settlement exists only from 1537, when Kempe Gowda I, a vassal of the imperial Vijayanagara Empire built a mud-brick fort at the site and established it as a province of the empire. During the British Raj, it became a centre of colonial rule in South India. The establishment of the Bangalore Cantonment brought in large numbers of migrants from other parts of the country.

Today as a large city and growing metropolis, Bangalore is home to many of the most well-recognized colleges and research institutions in India. Numerous public sector heavy industries, software companies, aerospace, telecommunications, and defence organisations are located in the city. Bangalore is known as the Silicon Valley of India because of its position as the nation's leading IT exporter.[8][9][10] A demographically diverse city, Bangalore is a major economic and cultural hub and the fastest growing major metropolis in India.[11]

Contents

Etymology

The name Bangalore is an anglicised version of the town's name in the Kannada language, Bengaḷūru. The earliest reference to the name "Bengaluru" was found in a ninth century Western Ganga Dynasty stone inscription on a "vīra gallu" (ವೀರಗಲ್ಲು) (literally, "hero stone", a rock edict extolling the virtues of a warrior). In this inscription found in Begur, "Bengaluru" is referred to as a place in which a battle was fought in 890. It states that the place was part of the Ganga Kingdom until 1004 and was known as "Bengaval-uru", the "City of Guards" in Halegannada (Old Kannada.[12] An article, published in The Hindu, states:

An inscription, dating back to 890 CE, shows Bangalore is over 1,000 years old. But it stands neglected at the Parvathi Nageshwara Temple in Begur near the city... written in Hale Kannada (Old Kannada) of the 9th century CE, the epigraph refers to a Bengaluru war in 890 in which Buttanachetty, a servant of Nagatta, died. Though this has been recorded by historian R. Narasimhachar in his Epigraphia of Carnatica (Vol. 10 supplementary), no efforts have been made to preserve it.[13]

An apocryphal, though popular, anecdote recounts that the 11th-century Hoysala king Veera Ballala II, while on a hunting expedition, lost his way in the forest. Tired and hungry, he came across a poor old woman who served him boiled beans. The grateful king named the place "benda-kaal-uru" (Kannada: ಬೆಂದಕಾಳೂರು) (literally, "town of boiled beans"), which eventually evolved into "Bengalūru".[14][15]

On 11 December 2005, the Government of Karnataka announced that it had accepted a proposal by Jnanpith Award winner U. R. Ananthamurthy to rename Bangalore to Bengaluru.[16] On 27 September 2006, the Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) passed a resolution to implement the proposed name change,[17] which was accepted by the Government of Karnataka and it was decided to officially implement the name change from 1 November 2006.[18][19] However, this process has been currently stalled due to delays in getting clearances from the Union Home Ministry.[20]

History

Lady Curzon hospital in the Bangalore Cantonment was established in 1864 and later named after the first wife of the Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon.

After centuries of the rule of the Western Gangas, Bangalore was captured by the Cholas in 1024 AD which later passed on to the Chalukya-cholas in 1070. In 1116 the Hoysala Empire, overthrew the Cholas and extended its rule over Bangalore. Modern Bangalore was founded by a vassal of the Vijayanagara Empire, Kempe Gowda I, who built a mud-brick fort and a Nandi Temple in the proximity of modern Bangalore in 1537. Yelahanka is one of the oldest towns in Karnataka and it is believed that it has a history of more than 500 years. It is the home town for the ruling king called Kempegowda (under a provision given by Krishnadevaraya) who built Bangalore City. Kempe Gowda referred to the new town as his "gandubhūmi" or "Land of Heroes".[15]

Within Bangalore Fort, the town was divided into smaller divisions – each called a "pete" ([peːteː]). The town had two main streets – Chikkapete Street, which ran east-west, and Doddapete Street, which ran north-south. Their intersection formed the Doddapete Square — the heart of Bangalore. Kempe Gowda's successor, Kempe Gowda II, built four famous towers that marked Bangalore's boundary. Myth says that the city would befall great calamity if it extended beyond these four towers.[21] During the Vijayanagara rule, Bangalore was also referred to as "Devarāyanagara" and "Kalyānapura" ("Auspicious City").

Bangalore Palace, built in 1887, was home to the rulers of Mysore

After the fall of the Vijayanagara Empire, Bangalore's rule changed hands several times. In 1638, a large Bijapur army led by Ranadulla Khan and accompanied by Shahji Bhonsle defeated Kempe Gowda III and Bangalore was given to Shahaji as a jagir. In 1687, the Mughal general Kasim Khan defeated Ekoji I/Venkoji, son of Shahaji, and then sold Bangalore to Chikkadevaraja Wodeyar (1673–1704) of Mysore for 300,000 rupees.[22][23] After the death of Krishnaraja Wodeyar II in 1759, Hyder Ali, Commander-in-Chief of the Mysore Army, proclaimed himself the de facto ruler of Mysore. The kingdom later passed to Hyder Ali's son Tippu Sultan, known as the Tiger of Mysore.

Bangalore was eventually incorporated into the British Indian Empire after Tippu Sultan was defeated and killed in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War (1799). The British returned administrative control of the Bangalore "pētē" to the Maharaja of Mysore, choosing only to retain the Cantonment under their jurisdiction. The 'Residency' of Mysore State was first established at Mysore in 1799 and later shifted to Bangalore in the year 1804. It was abolished in the year 1843 only to be revived in 1881 at Bangalore and to be closed down permanently in 1947, with Indian independence. The British, found it easier to recruit employees in the Madras Presidency and relocate them to cantonment area during this period. The Kingdom of Mysore relocated its capital from Mysore city to Bangalore in 1831.[24] Two important developments during this period contributed to the rapid growth of the city: the introduction of telegraph connections and a rail connection to Madras in 1864.

Bangalore city map, circa 1924 from "Murray's 1924 Handbook".

In the 19th century, Bangalore essentially became a twin city, with the "pētē", whose residents were predominantly Kannadigas, and the "cantonment" created by the British, whose residents were predominantly Tamils.[25] Bangalore was hit by a plague epidemic in 1898 that dramatically reduced its population. New extensions in Malleshwara and Basavanagudi were developed in the north and south of the pētē. Telephone lines were laid to help co-ordinate anti-plague operations, and a health officer was appointed to the city in 1898. In 1906, Bangalore became the first city in India to have electricity, powered by the hydroelectric plant situated in Shivanasamudra. Bangalore's reputation as the Garden City of India began in 1927 with the Silver Jubilee celebrations of the rule of Krishnaraja Wodeyar IV. Several projects such as the construction of parks, public buildings and hospitals were instituted to beautify the city. After Indian independence in August 1947, Bangalore remained in the new Mysore State of which the Maharaja of Mysore was the Rajapramukh.

Public sector employment and education provided opportunities for Kannadigas from the rest of the state to migrate to the city. Bangalore experienced rapid growth in the decades 1941–51 and 1971–81 , which saw the arrival of many immigrants from northern Karnataka. By 1961, Bangalore had become the sixth largest city in India, with a population of 1,207,000.[21] In the decades that followed, Bangalore's manufacturing base continued to expand with the establishment of private companies such as MICO (Motor Industries Company), which set up its manufacturing plant in the city. Bangalore experienced a growth in its real estate market in the 1980s and 1990s, spurred by capital investors from other parts of the country who converted Bangalore's large plots and colonial bungalows into multi-storied apartments.[26] In 1985, Texas Instruments became the first multinational corporation to set up base in Bangalore. Other information technology companies followed suit and by the end of the 20th century, Bangalore had firmly established itself as the Silicon Valley of India.

Geography

The Hesaraghatta Lake in Bangalore

Bangalore lies in the southeast of the South Indian state of Karnataka. It is in the heart of the Mysore Plateau (a region of the larger Precambrian Deccan Plateau) at an average elevation of 920 m (3,018 ft). It is positioned at 12°58′N 77°34′E / 12.97°N 77.56°E / 12.97; 77.56 and covers an area of 741 km² (286 mi²).[27] The majority of the city of Bangalore lies in the Bangalore Urban district of Karnataka and the surrounding rural areas are a part of the Bangalore Rural district. The region consisting the Bangalore Urban and Rural districts is known as the Bangalore (region). The Government of Karnataka has carved out the new district of Ramanagara from the old Bangalore Rural district.

The topology of Bangalore is flat except for a central ridge running NNE-SSW. The highest point is Vidyaranyapura Doddabettahalli, which is 962 m (3,156 ft) and lies on this ridge.[28] No major rivers run through the city, though the Arkavathi and South Pennar cross paths at the Nandi Hills, 60 km (37 mi.) to the north. River Vrishabhavathi, a minor tributary of the Arkavathi, arises within the city at Basavanagudi and flows through the city. The rivers Arkavathi and Vrishabhavathi together carry much of Bangalore's sewage. A sewerage system, constructed in 1922, covers 215 km² (133 mi²) of the city and connects with five sewage treatment centers located in the periphery of Bangalore.[29]

In the 16th century, Kempe Gowda I constructed many lakes to meet the town's water requirements. The Kempambudhi Kere, since overrun by modern development, was prominent among those lakes. In the earlier half of 20th century, the Nandi Hills waterworks was commissioned by Sir Mirza Ismail (Diwan of Mysore, 1926–41 CE) to provide a water supply to the city. Currently, the river Kaveri provides around 80% of the total water supply to the city with the remaining 20% being obtained from the Thippagondanahalli and Hesaraghatta reservoirs of the Arkavathi river.[30] Bangalore receives 800 million litres (211 million US gallons) of water a day, more than any other Indian city.[31] However, Bangalore sometimes does face water shortages, especially during the summer season- more so in the years of low rainfall. A random sampling study of the Air Quality Index (AQI) of twenty stations within the city indicated scores that ranged from 76 to 314, suggesting heavy to severe air pollution around areas of traffic concentration.[32]

Bangalore has a handful of freshwater lakes and water tanks, the largest of which are Madivala tank, Hebbal lake, Ulsoor lake and Sankey Tank. Groundwater occurs in silty to sandy layers of the alluvial sediments. The Peninsular Gneissic Complex (PGC) is the most dominant rock unit in the area and includes granites, gneisses and migmatites, while the soils of Bangalore consist of red laterite and red, fine loamy to clayey soils.[32]

Vegetation in the city is primarily in the form of large deciduous canopy and minority coconut trees. Though Bangalore has been classified as a part of the seismic zone II (a stable zone), it has experienced quakes of magnitude as high as 4.5.[33]

Climate

Bangalore experiences a tropical savanna climate (Köppen climate classification Aw) with distinct wet and dry seasons. Due to its high elevation, Bangalore usually enjoys a more moderate climate throughout the year, although occasional heat waves can make things very uncomfortable in the summer.[34] The coolest month is January with an average low temperature of 15.1 °C and the hottest month is April with an average high temperature of 33.6 °C.[35] The highest temperature ever recorded in Bangalore is 38.9 °C(recorded in March 1931) and the lowest ever is 7.8 °C (recorded in January 1884).[36][37] Winter temperatures rarely drop below 12 °C (54 °F), and summer temperatures seldom exceed 36–37 °C (100 °F). Bangalore receives rainfall from both the northeast and the southwest monsoons and the wettest months are August, September and October, in that order.[35] The summer heat is moderated by fairly frequent thunderstorms, which occasionally cause power outages and local flooding. The heaviest rainfall recorded in a 24-hour period is 179 millimetres (7.0 in) recorded on 1 October 1997.[38]

Civic administration

Bangalore City officials
Municipal Commissioner
Siddaiah[40]
Mayor
S.K. Nataraj[1]
Police Commissioner
Shankar Bidari[41]
The Karnataka High Court is the supreme judicial body, housed in the historic Atthara Kacheri, in Karnataka and is located in Bangalore.
Vidhana Soudha, houses many state ministries.

The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP, Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation) is in charge of the civic administration of the city.[42] It was formed in 2007 by merging 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike, with seven neighbouring City Municipal Councils, one Town Municipal Council and 110 villages around Bangalore.[42] The BBMP is run by a city council composed of 250 members, including 198 councillors representing each of the wards of the city and 52 other elected representatives, consisting of members of Parliament and the state legislature.[43] Elections to the council are held once every five years, with results being decided by popular vote. Members contesting elections to the council usually represent one of more of the state's political parties. A mayor and deputy mayor are also elected from among the elected members of the council.[43] Elections to the BBMP were held on March 28, 2010, after a gap of three and a half years since the expiry of the previous elected body's term, and the Bharatiya Janata Party was voted into power – the first time it had ever won a civic poll in the city.[44]

Bangalore's rapid growth has created several problems relating to traffic congestion and infrastructural obsolescence that the Bangalore Mahanagara Palike has found challenging to address. A 2003 Battelle Environmental Evaluation System (BEES) evaluation of Bangalore's physical, biological and socioeconomic parameters indicated that Bangalore's water quality and terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems were close to ideal, while the city's socioeconomic parameters (traffic, quality of life) scored poorly.[45] The unplanned nature of growth in the city resulted in massive traffic gridlocks that the municipality attempted to ease by constructing a flyover system and by imposing one-way traffic systems. Some of the flyovers and one-ways mitigated the traffic situation moderately but were unable to adequately address the disproportionate growth of city traffic.[45] In 2005 both the Central Government and the State Government allocated considerable portions of their annual budgets to address Bangalore's infrastructure.[46] The BBMP works with the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) and the Agenda for Bengaluru Infrastructure and Development Task Force (ABIDe) to design and implement civic projects. Bangalore generates about 3,000 tonnes of solid waste per day, of which about 1,139 tonnes are collected and sent to composting units such as the Karnataka Composting Development Corporation. The remaining solid waste collected by the municipality is dumped in open spaces or on roadsides outside the city.[47]

The Bangalore City Police (BCP) has six geographic zones, includes the Traffic Police, the City Armed Reserve, the Central Crime Branch and the City Crime Record Bureau and runs 86 police stations, including two all-women police stations.[48] As capital of the state of Karnataka, Bangalore houses important state government facilities such as the Karnataka High Court, the Vidhana Soudha (the home of the Karnataka state legislature) and Raj Bhavan (the residence of the Governor of Karnataka). Bangalore contributes three members to India's lower house of parliament, the Lok Sabha, and 28 members to the Karnataka State Assembly.[49]

Electricity in Bangalore is regulated through the Bangalore Electricity Supply Company (BESCOM),[50] while water supply and sanitation facilities are provided by the Bangalore Water Supply and Sewerage Board (BWSSB).[51]

Economy

Bangalore's Indian rupee52,346 crore (US$ 11.88 billion) economy (2006–07 Net District Income) makes it one of the major economic centres in India,[52] with the value of city's exports totalling Indian rupee43,221 crore (US$ 9.81 billion) in 2004-05.[53] With an economic growth of 10.3%, Bangalore is the fastest growing major metropolis in India,[54] and is also the country's fourth largest fast moving consumer goods (FMCG) market.[55] With a per capita income of Indian rupee74,709 (US$ 1,695.89) in 2006-07,[52] the city is the third largest hub for high net worth individuals and is home to over 10,000 dollar millionaires and about 60,000 super-rich people who have an investable surplus of Indian rupee4.5 crore (US$ 1 million) and Rs. 50 lakh (US$ 113,500) respectively.[56]

The headquarters of Infosys, India's second largest IT company, is located in Bangalore

The headquarters of several public sector undertakings such as Bharat Electronics Limited (BEL), Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL), Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL), Bharat Earth Movers Limited (BEML) and Hindustan Machine Tools (HMT) are located in Bangalore. In June 1972 the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was established under the Department of Space and headquartered in the city.

Bangalore is called the Silicon Valley of India because of the large number of information technology companies located in the city which contributed 33% of India's Rs. 144,214 crore (US$ 33 billion) IT exports in 2006-07.[57] Bangalore's IT industry is divided into three main clustersSoftware Technology Parks of India (STPI); International Tech Park, Bangalore (ITPB); and Electronics City. UB City, the headquarters of the United Breweries Group, is a high-end commercial zone.[58] Infosys and Wipro, India's second and third largest software companies are headquartered in Bangalore, as are many of the global SEI-CMM Level 5 Companies.

The growth of IT has presented the city with unique challenges. Ideological clashes sometimes occur between the city's IT moguls, who demand an improvement in the city's infrastructure, and the state government, whose electoral base is primarily the people in rural Karnataka.[59] The encouragement of high-tech industry in Bangalore, for example, has not favoured local employment development, but has, instead, increased land values and forced out small enterprise.[60] Bangalore is a hub for biotechnology related industry in India and in the year 2005, around 47% of the 265 biotechnology companies in India were located here; including Biocon, India's largest biotechnology company.[61][62]

Transport

Air

Bangalore is served by the newly built Bengaluru International Airport (IATA code: BLR) which started operations from 24 May 2008. The city was earlier served by the HAL Airport which was India's fourth busiest airport.[63][64][65] Air Deccan and Kingfisher Airlines have their headquarters in Bangalore.[66] It is now the fourth busiest airport in India in terms of passenger traffic and the number of air traffic movements (ATMs) with about 280 per day.[67]

Rail

A rapid transit system called the Namma Metro is being built, and as of February 2010 was expected to be partly operational by December 2010.[68] Once completed, this will encompass a 42.3 km (26.3 mi) elevated and underground rail network comprising 41 stations. It is expected to connect central locations in Bangalore to Devanahalli and the Chikballapur regions.[69] [70] Bangalore comes under the South Western Railway zone of the Indian Railways. Bangalore City Railway station and Yesvantpur Junction connect it to the rest of the country through the Indian Railways. The Bangalore Rajdhani Express connects the city to New Delhi, the capital of India. Bangalore is also connected by rail to most cities in Karnataka, as well as Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Hyderabad, Bhopal, and other major cities in India.[71] The sprawling Rail Wheel Factory is Asia's second largest manufacturer of Wheel & Axle for Railways and headquartered in Yelahanka, Bangalore.

BMTC's Volvo buses are a popular mode of commuting within Bangalore.[72]

Road

Three-wheeled, green and yellow auto-rickshaws, referred to as autos, are a popular form of transport. They are metered and can accommodate up to three passengers. Taxi services within Bangalore is provided by several operators. Taxis, commonly called City Taxis, are usually available only on call. Taxis are metered and are generally more expensive than auto-rickshaws.

Buses operated by Bangalore Metropolitan Transport Corporation (BMTC) are an important means of public transport available in the city, and are highly reliable.[73] While commuters can buy tickets on boarding these buses, BMTC also provides an option of a bus pass to frequent users.[73] BMTC runs air-conditioned luxury buses on major routes, and also operates shuttle services from various parts of the city to the Bengaluru International Airport.[74] The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation operates 6,918 buses on 6,352 schedules, connecting Bangalore with other parts of Karnataka as well as other states. The main bus depots that BMTC maintains are the Kempegowda Bus Station, Shantinagar Bus Depot, and Shivajinagar Bus Depot.

Demographics

Population Growth
Census Pop.  %±
1971 1,654,000
1981 2,922,000 76.7%
1991 4,130,000 41.3%
2001 5,101,000 23.5%
Source: Census of India[75]
The Nandi Temple is a famous temple located in Basavanagudi, Bangalore.
Religion in Bangalore
Religion Percent
Hindus
  
79.3%
Muslims
  
13.3%
Christians
  
5.8%
Jains
  
1.1%
Others†
  
1%
Distribution of religions

With an estimated population of 5.8 million in 2001,[3] Bangalore is the third most populous city in India and the 28th most populous city in the world.[76] Bangalore was the fastest-growing Indian metropolis after New Delhi between 1991–2001, with a growth rate of 38% during the decade. Residents of Bangalore are referred to as Bangaloreans in English Bengaloorinavaru in Kannada[77]

The cosmopolitan nature of the city has resulted in the migration of people from other states to Bangalore,[78] which has in recent years given rise to tensions between immigrants and locals.[79] Scheduled Castes and Tribes account for 14.3% of the city's population. Besides Kannada, other major languages spoken in the city are English, Tamil, Telugu, Urdu and Hindi.[80] A good number of Konkani speakers have settled in Bangalore since last century from Canara districts of Karnataka and Goa.[81] Similarly Marathi is spoken by considerably small section of society.[82]

According to the 2001 census of India, 79.4% of Bangalore's population is Hindu, roughly the same as the national average.[83] Muslims comprise 13.4% of the population, which again is roughly the same as the national average, while Christians and Jains account for 5.8% and 1.1% of the population, respectively, double that of their national averages. Anglo-Indians also form a substantial group within the city. Women make up 47.5% of Bangalore's population. Bangalore has the second highest literacy rate (83%) for an Indian metropolis, after Mumbai. Roughly 10% of Bangalore's population lives in slums[84]—a relatively low proportion when compared to other cities in the developing world such as Mumbai (50%) and Nairobi (60%).[85] The 2008 National Crime Records Bureau statistics indicate that Bangalore accounts for 8.5% of the total crimes reported from 35 major cities in India.[86]

Culture

The Lal Bagh Glass House at night; famous for its flower shows, it is now a heritage monument.
Bangalore Karaga, one of the oldest and most important festivals in the heart of Bangalore.
Yakshagana -- a theatre art often performed in the town hall

Dasara, a traditional celebration of the old Kingdom of Mysore, is the state festival and is celebrated with great vigour.

Bangalore is known as the Garden City of India[87] because of its greenery and the presence of many public parks, including the Lal Bagh and Cubbon Park.

The city celebrates its most important and oldest festival, "Karaga Shaktyotsava" or Bangalore Karaga.[88] Deepavali, the "Festival of Lights", transcends demographic and religious lines and is another important festival. Other traditional Indian festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi, Ugadi, Sankranthi, Eid ul-Fitr, and Christmas are also celebrated.

Bangalore is home to the Kannada film industry, which churns out about 80 Kannada movies each year.[89]

The diversity of cuisine is reflective of the social and economic diversity of Bangalore. Roadside vendors, tea stalls, and South Indian, North Indian, Chinese and Western fast food are all very popular in the city. Udupi restaurants are very popular and serve predominantly vegetarian, regional cuisine. Bangalore has a wide and varied mix of restaurant types and cuisines and Bangaloreans deem eating out as an intrinsic part of their culture, so much that Bangalore Restaurant Week - an event that involves some of the best restaurants in Bangalore - is being held between November 12 to 21, 2010.

Bangalore is also a major center of Indian classical music and dance. Classical music and dance recitals are widely held throughout the year and particularly during the Ramanavami and Ganesha Chaturthi festivals. The Bengaluru Gayana Samaja has been at the forefront of promoting classical music and dance in the city.

The city has a vibrant English and regional language theater scene with organizations such as Ranga Shankara and Chowdaiah Memorial Hall leading the way. Bangalore is also sometimes called as the "Pub Capital of India" and is one of the premier places to hold international rock concerts.[90]

Sister cities

Sports

The M. Chinnaswamy Stadium is Bangalore's premier cricket stadium.

Cricket is the most popular sport in Bangalore. A significant number of national cricketers have come from Bangalore, including former Indian cricket team captains Rahul Dravid and Anil Kumble. Some of the other players who have represented India include Gundappa Vishwanath, Syed Kirmani, E. A. S. Prasanna, Venkatesh Prasad, Sunil Joshi, Robin Uthappa, Vinay Kumar and Abhimanyu Mithun . Many children play gully cricket on the roads and in the city's many public fields. Bangalore's main international cricket stadium is the M. Chinnaswamy Stadium, which has a seating capacity of 55,000[94] and has hosted matches during the 1987 Cricket World Cup and 1996 Cricket World Cup. The Chinnaswamy Stadium is also the home of India's National Cricket Academy.

The Indian Premier League franchise Bangalore Royal Challengers, the Premier Hockey League franchise Bangalore Hi-fliers, and the Karnataka Premier League franchisees Bangalore Brigadiers and [97] Bangalore is also home to the Bangalore Rugby Football Club (B.R.F.C)

Bangalore has a number of elite clubs, like Century Club, The Bangalore Golf Club, the Bowring Institute and the exclusive Bangalore Club, which counts among its previous members Winston Churchill and the Maharaja of Mysore.[98] The Hindustan Aeronautics Limited SC is based in Bangalore. Other sports personalities from Bangalore include national swimming champion Nisha Millet, world snooker champion, Pankaj Advani and former All England Open badminton champion Prakash Padukone.

Education

Indian Institute of Science - the premier institute of science in India.

Until the early 19th century, education in Bangalore was mainly run by religious leaders and restricted to students of that religion.[99] The western system of education was introduced during the rule of Mummadi Krishnaraja Wodeyar, when two schools were established in Bangalore. Subsequently, Wesleyan Mission established a school in 1851 and the Bangalore High School which was started by the Government in 1858.[100]

In post-independent India, schools for young children are mainly based on the kindergarten form of education.[101] Primary and secondary education in Bangalore is offered by various schools which are affiliated to one of the boards of education, such as the Secondary School Leaving Certificate (SSLC), ICSE, CBSE, IB and NIOS.[102] Schools in Bangalore are either government run or are private (both aided and un-aided by the government).[103] After completing their secondary education, students either attend Pre University (PUC) or continue High School in one of three streamsArts, Commerce or Science.[104] Alternatively, students may also enroll in Diploma courses. Upon completing the required coursework, students enroll in general or professional degrees in universities. The Bangalore University,established in 1886, provides affiliation to about 500 colleges, with a total student enrollment exceeding 300,000. The university has two campuses within Bangalore – Jnanabharathi and Central College.[105]

Indian Institute of Science, which was established in 1909 in Bangalore, is the premier institute for scientific research and study in India.[106] Nationally renowned professional institutes such as the National Institute of Design (NID) National Law School of India University (NLSIU), the Indian Institute of Management, Bangalore (IIM-B) and the Indian Statistical Institute are located in Bangalore.[106] The city is also home to the premier mental health institution in India National Institute of Mental Health and Neuro Sciences (NIMHANS). Bangalore also has some of the best medical colleges in the country, like St. John's Medical College (SJMC) and Bangalore Medical College and Research Institute (BMCRI).

Media

The first printing-press was established in Bangalore in the year 1840.[107] In 1959, punjab kesri became the first English bi-weekly newspaper to be published in Bangalore[108] and in 1860, Mysore Vrittanta Bodhini became the first kannada newspaper to be circulated in Bangalore.[107] Currently, Vijaya Karnataka and The Times of India are the most widely circulated kannada and English newspapers in Bangalore respectively, closely followed by the Prajavani and Deccan Herald both owned by the Printers (Mysore) Limited - the largest print media house in Karnataka.[109][110]

Bangalore got its first radio station when All India Radio, the official broadcaster for the Indian Government, started broadcasting from its Bangalore station on 2 November 1955.[111] The radio transmission was AM, until in 2001, Radio City became the first private channel in India to start transmitting FM radio from Bangalore.[112] In recent years, a number of FM channels have started broadcasting from Bangalore.[113] The city also has India's Oldest Amateur (Ham) Radio Club - Bangalore Amateur Radio Club VU2ARC [114][115] celebrating its Golden Jubilee along with Hamfest India HFI 2009 this November [116] amongst various clubs for HAM radio enthusiasts.[117] There are two operational community radio stations in Bangalore called Radio Active and Ramana Voices, managed by Mahaveer Jain College and Shree Ramana Maharishi Academy of the Blind (SRMAB), respectively. The latter is being co-managed by a media advocacy group in Bangalore called VOICES.

Bangalore has a number of newspapers and magazines that cater to the varied interests. Magazines like Open and 080 cater to lifestyle, citizen issues and fashion, newspapers like Mid-Day, Bangalore Mirror, Vijaya Karnataka provide localised news updates. On the web, Explocity provides listings information, while My Bangalore is news centric. Deccan Herald, The Times of India and The Hindu provide e-paper services.

Bangalore got its first look at television when Doordarshan established a relay centre here and started relaying programs from 1 November 1981.[118] A production center was established in the Doordarshan's Bangalore office in 1983, thereby allowing the introduction of a news program in Kannada on 19 November 1983.[118] Doordarshan also launched a kannada satellite channel on 15 August 1991 which is now christened DD Chandana.[118] The advent of private satellite channels in Bangalore started in September 1991 when Star TV started to broadcast its channels.[119] Though the number of satellite TV channels available for viewing in Bangalore has grown over the years,[120] the cable operators play a major role in the availability of these channels, which has led to occasional conflicts.[121] Direct To Home services are also available in Bangalore now.[122]

The first Internet service provider in Bangalore was STPI, Bangalore which started offering internet services in early 1990s.[123] This Internet service was however restricted to corporates, until VSNL started offering dial-up internet services to the general public at the end of 1995.[124] Currently, Bangalore has the largest number of broadband Internet connections in India.[125]

See also

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